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Trauma is a psychological and emotional response to a distressing or life-threatening event or series of events. Trauma can be caused by a range of experiences, such as physical or sexual assault, natural disasters, serious accidents, combat, or the sudden loss of a loved one. When someone experiences trauma, it can trigger a wide range of emotional, psychological, and physical reactions. 

Types of Trauma:

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    • PTSD is a psychological disorder that can occur in people who experienced or witnessed a life-threatening event such as a:

      • Car accident

      • Natural disaster

      • Sexual or physical assault

      • War or terrorist attack

      • Medical trauma.

  • Complex Trauma (C-PTSD)

    • Complex trauma is a psychological disorder develops in response to repeated interpersonal traumas that an individual cannot escape that occur over long periods of time. Complex trauma often develops in childhood or adolescence but can also develop in adulthood. Examples of complex trauma include:

      • Childhood sexual, verbal, or physical abuse

      • Emotional or physical abandonment

      • Emotional or physical neglect

      • Ongoing domestic violence

      • Being kidnapped or a prisoner of war

      • Repeated witnessing of violence as a child, adolescent, or adult

      • Human trafficking

      • Torture and ritual abuse​​

  • Dissociative Disorders​​

    • Dissociative disorders are mental disorders that involve an involuntary disconnection between thoughts, memories, actions, and identity. Dissociative disorders occur as a result of repeated emotional, sexual, or physical abuse. 

Common symptoms of trauma include:

  • Intrusive thoughts or memories about the traumatic event

  • Avoidance of reminders of the trauma

  • Negative thoughts or beliefs about oneself or the world

  • Hypervigilance or feeling "on guard" all the time

  • Sleep disturbances, including nightmares or insomnia

  • Feelings of shame, guilt, or self-blame

  • Changes in mood, such as feeling irritable, angry, or sad

  • Feeling disconnected from oneself or others

  • Memory loss (amnesia) for periods of time

  • Feeling detached from your self 

  • Feeling like people or the environment is not real

  • Identity confusion

Trauma can also lead to the development of mental health disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse, self-harm, suicidal ideation, and personaity disorders. It's important to note that different types of trauma may require different approaches to therapy. MHRS can help determine the best approach for an individual's specific needs.

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